Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Baby Boomers free essay sample

In the article Blue Collar Boomers Take Work Ethic to College Sander’s makes that contention that the children of post war America within recent memory are as yet qualified to work, and are extremely ready to attempt better approaches for accomplishing the training to begin various types of work. The majority of the child of post war America age had gone directly to hard work employments to help bring home cash for their families, and since they are more seasoned the work is stressing on their bodies (Sanders 3). While they might be more seasoned, they are as yet fit for figuring out how to utilize new innovation and extending their brains (Sanders 27). Sanders talks about that school is not, at this point a spot for youthful grown-ups to go to once out of secondary school, yet rather a spot for anybody to get high training so as to accomplish work. A portion of the more seasoned Americans are deciding to return to school. Mr Hill says, â€Å"I need work plunking down, at the PC, in the cubicle†¦after being out in the field for such a significant number of years, I might want a plunk down activity. We will compose a custom article test on Gen X-ers or on the other hand any comparative theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page Mr. Slope had concluded that subsequent to working exposed for such a long time, he imagined that he had the right to take in substantial income while not doing a lot of physical work (Sanders 24). In the wake of being a piece of an extraordinary things or helping their nation, a portion of the people born after WW2 accepted that they have the right to carry on with a comfortable life. To an alternate degree, more established Americans need to proceed with school as an issue of need. In section 30 Mr. Ronan states, â€Å"They don't have the extravagance nor the enthusiasm for returning to school for a few years, they need something speedy † This announcement tells perusers that more established Americans don't have the privilege to return to school in light of the fact that not at all like more youthful Americans, they have bills to pay. A portion of the children of post war America are proceeding with school for work on the grounds that the hard work of their old vocation has left their bodies shriveled (Sanders 3). Nonetheless, in light of the fact that their bodies are unequipped for difficult work, doesn't imply that their brains are. At the point when these more established understudies come to school, they carry their qualities with them. In today’s society, individuals accept that school is simply something that for the most part everybody must go to after secondary school as a piece of their way throughout everyday life; and some underestimate it. The more seasoned Americans, or people born after WW2, didn't have the chances to head off to college as we do. To them, school is a great encounter to gain proficiency with the things expected to go into their field of work or even just to advance their own insight. People born after WW2 understand the estimation of decent training and what it can bring for their vocations (Sanders 31). They are essentially combining their hard working attitude from hard work occupations, to concentrating similarly as hard in the study hall.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Policy Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Strategy Paper - Essay Example Russiahas a long-standing history with the Syrian rulers, which succeeded during the dictator rule of Hafez Al Assad, the dad of the present Syrian president Bashar Al Assad. There is requirement for the Russian government to help the Syrian Army and government and an arrangement is required for this to occur as fast as could be expected under the circumstances. The senior Assad’s relationship with the Russian administration saw him being welcome to Russia by Leonid Brezhnev and immovably introduced Syria’s position as a protector of the USSR during the Cold War, a convention that proceeded with the Russian republic after the separation of the Soviet Republics. Russia is Syria’s biggest provider of arms, with yearly arms deals between the two nations beating more than US$1.5 billion. The nations additionally have a great deal of exchange connects and have throughout the years built up solid bonds, in view of on the gracefully of arms and cold war and post-cold wa r hostile to American position. This position saw the Russian Republic - along with China - veto allUN goals calling for military intercession in Syria by the global network (Carpenter 3). Russia has likewise been vocal in shielding the Syrian organization of Bashar Al Assad and agreed with their position in the contention with what they allude to as Islamic fear based oppressor rebels. It is based on the longstanding history of the connection between the two nations that the main motivation behind why Russia should arm the legislature of Syria. This progressing relationship has been between the legislatures that standard the two nations and in this manner stay set up regardless of which government is set up in Syria. There is requirement for Russia to arm Syrian and give a conclusive victor in this fight so as to stop the philanthropic and political disaster that has occurred and keeps on occurring in Syria today. Russia needs to help Syrian in this contention so as to stem the dev elopment and spread of radical Islamist transformation that has proceeded under the appearance of an America-bolstered Arab Spring (Tenin 6). Russia additionally needs to arm Syria so as to stop this spread of Islamist radicalism that Russia needed to manage in Chechnya and to forestall Islamist psychological oppressors utilizing Syria as another from to assault Russia. This arrangement introduced in this is an arrangement to arm the Syrian government powers by Russia so as to give an unequivocal finishing to the common conflict in Syria for the last time and to secure the holiness of the Syrian system. The initial segment of this arrangement is the distinguishing proof of the sorts and scope of weapons that the Russian Republic can gracefully to Syria to guarantee that the tide of the war in that nation turns for the Syrian government and to guarantee that the district is balanced out and that the Syrian nation doesn't break down into innate or ethnic enclaves, as has occurred in t he various nations where worldwide intercession as a rule as American and American-helped attack has occurred. One just needs to take a gander at the impact of American mediation in Iraq, Afghanistan, Libya and most as of late Egypt to perceive how their intercession just outcomes in increasingly complex interior clash and crumbling of lawfulness. In Syria, the circumstance is additionally intensified

Sunday, August 16, 2020

Religious Discussions

Religious Discussions IAP, as you might have heard, is a fun and exciting time to be at MIT, because there are about a million events going on every day. Ive been checking the IAP events schedule pretty regularly, but unfortunately, most of the events that I find interesting take place during my Italian class or work hours. But today I was finally able to attend one of the seminars I found intersting. Unfortunately, it wasnt as interesting as Id hoped, but Im really glad I went. The topic, you might be surprised, to know, was religion. MITs Asian Christian Fellowship hosted Doubters Anonymous, which listed the following description in the IAP guide: A discussion group about hard questions regarding faith and Christianity. Practicing and retired Christians, agnostics, atheists, and general doubters are all encouraged to come. Discussion will follow the questions that you anonymously suggest at the beginning of the meeting. Facilitators are Kevin Ford (an MIT chaplain and pastor) and Garrett Smith, who is well versed in Judaism, Eastern religions, and Christianity. Regardless of where you are on your spiritual journey, come and pose your hard questions about faith, science, Christianity, and doubt. As someone who considers herself spiritual but often has a hard time believing things on blind faith, this seminar seemed particularly interesting to me. The two speakers took turns answers some tough questions, like How do Christians view Muhammad, who said that God spoke to him? Are we to simply disregard his personal spiritual encounter? and As a scientist, how can I believe in things described in the Bible like the sun standing still, Sodom and Gomorrah, etc? Unfortunately, the seminar seemed more geared towards Christians hoping to strengthen their faith by overcoming these questions, rather than someone like me, who wasnt actually looking for a solid answer. Because of that, I found some of the answers less than satisfying. For example, the speakers explained their personal reasons for believing in Jesus rather than Muhammad, which was insightful, but without an Islamic point of view, the discussionwasnt really much of a discussion. One of the interesting things the speaker mentioned was that he thought that there should be a huge price for declaring faith- thatll keep you honest. When members of a certain religion are persecuted, only those who really believe in it will risk it. Think about it- when people are less tolerant, religion is more pure. Crazy. Looking at it from the reverse: part of the problem with Christianity today, in this speakers view, is that if you grow up in a Christian family, theres a huge price for NOT declaring your faith. So you end up with a lot of people who say theyre Christians when theyre really not, which really dilutes the power and message of those people who are truly faithful. The world is unfortunately brimming over with the effects of this phenomenon as it applies to all religions. The second question I mentioned above was perhaps more interesting, because one of the students at the seminar suggested that we change it to reflect some recent letters to the editor which had been published in the Tech. Rather recently, MIT appointed Dean Randolph its first ever Chaplain. This inspired a letter to the editor of the Tech by someone who opposed the apointment of a chaplain, and, as you can imagine, a few responses to that. Ive provided the links to the letters below, but be warned, it gets heated pretty fast. My personal opinion is that the original letter writer is being horrendously narrow-minded, but see for yourself: MIT does not need a chaplain Responses published on 1/16 Responses published on 1/23 One of the speakers wrote on the board, Is there purpose in the universe? pointed to it, and asked can science answer this question? He claimed the answer was no, because science isnt designed to answer that question. Even among scientists, its pretty commonly accepted that the limit of science merges with philosophy. That theres a point at which things might just be unknowable, and thats where faith comes in. As for the miraculous, science-defying events that happen in the Bible, he claimed that people just wrote what they saw, and we have to figure out what they meant by that. He posed the following example: If youre at the beach in the evening and the sky is a very pretty red, you might say, what a pretty sunset. You dont say, Wow, look at the way the suns rays are refracting through the layers of the atmosphere as its angle of declination to our line of sight changes over time. You say, thats a pretty sunset- but thats terribly scientifically inaccurate! Im not sure how far this goes into convincing skeptics of the truth in the Bible despite its miraculous proclamations, but it certainly got a good laugh out of the crowd. The other speaker took a different route: he claimed that there are so many miraculous things that happen all the time that we take for granted that we just never bother to try to explain them. For example, the miracle of birth. Sure we know all about the biology of it, but we seem to be so caught up in our detailed knowledge of the sperm fertilizing the egg and the chromosomes splitting and so on and so forth, that we never really seem stop to think that all of those cells doing their thing actually creates a new person. Thats pretty miraculous, if you stop to think about it for a second. Like I said, I had a lot of problems with some of the things the speakers were saying, but it did provide some interesting food for thought which should keep me mentally occupied for awhile. So, in case you were wondering- yes, there is a religious following at MIT, but like in everything else, were still MIT students about it- so we think too much and make science jokes about it too. =) You can see more IAP activities related to religion here. Responses to comments: Isshak said: do you like to read Kafka ? You should read The Trial, its a great book ! What do you like to read ? I havent read any Kafka, but I do read pretty much anything and everything, so Ill be sure to add that to my list. Ive literally walked down an aisle of the library and pulled a book off the shelves at random for leisure reading. In general, though, Im a big fan of fantasy, however cheesy and unoriginal it might be. I just love reading about people who are doing more exciting things than me, leading brave and epic lives and fighting evil and what not, because Id totally love to be one of those characters. Im also a big fan of Kurt Vonnegut, because his stuff is very sarcastic and satirical, and sarcastic just might be my middle name. One other thing I love to read but am never, ever able to finish is Hispanic literature. Its just so hard to get through a whole book in a non-native language. It takes SO long, but I absolutely adore Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Isabelle Allende anyway. They write with whats called magical realism which is a style that relies on blurring the line between fantasy and reality. Sorry for the long-winded answer, but you did ask me a question about one of my favorite topics ever. =) Justin Powell asked: Also this might be a dumb question but I have looked for the emails of the bloggers a few times and have not been able to find them Where the heck are they?? This one has already been answered, but for anyone else whos wondering, all of the bloggers have contact information listed to the left of their banner photos at the top of each of their entries. Feel free to contact me at asklaura at mit dot edu. I will reply to your email, but I can make absolutely no promise as to how quickly Ill accomplish that. Also, to everyone who sent in blog entry ideas in response to my last entry: youre awesome! Obviously they wont all be happening right away, but rest assured that Ive taken note of them and will be tackling them eventually. If you ever have any personal questions or blog entry ideas, please let me know. Believe it or not, the comment section below is not specifically designed so you can have a first post war. And like I said, I do reply to all the emails I get from you guys. Eventually. =)

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Introduction To The SENSEX Index Example For Free - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3613 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Economics Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? BSE is the first stock exchange in the country to obtain permanent recognition in 1956 from the Government of India.The Exchange has a nation-wide reach with a presence in 417 cities and towns of India.The Exchanges role in the development of the Indian capital market is widely recognized and its index, SENSEX, is tracked worldwide. The BSE Sensex or Bombay Stock Exchange Sensitivity Index is a value-weighted index composed of 30 stocks that started January 1, 1986. The Sensex is regarded as the pulse of the domestic stock markets in India. It consists of the 30 largest and most actively traded stocks, representative of various sectors, on the Bombay Stock Exchange. These companies account for around fifty per cent of the market capitalisation of the BSE. The base value of the sensex is 100 on April 1, 1979, and the base year of BSE-SENSEX is 1978-79. Earlier an Association of Persons (AOP).The Exchange is professionally managed under the overall direction o f the Board of Directors.The Board comprises eminent professionals, representatives of Trading Members and the Managing Director of the Exchange.In terms of organisation structure, the Board formulates larger policy issues and exercises over-all control. The committees constituted by the Board are broad-based.The day-to-dayoperations of the Exchange are managed by the Managing Director and a management team of professionals. Analysis of sensex How is sensex index calculated ? SENSEX, first compiled in 1986 was calculated on a Market Capitalization-Weighted methodology of 30 component stocks representing a sample of large, well-established and financially sound companies.These companies account for around one-fifth of the market capitalization of the BSE(indices). The base year of SENSEX is 1978-79(April.1ÂÂ  1979 = 100). The index is widely reported in both domestic and international markets through print as well as electronic media. SENSEX is not only scientifically d esigned but also based on globally accepted construction and review methodology. From September 2003, the SENSEX is calculated on a free-float marke capitalization methodology. The free-float Market Capitalization-Weighted methodology is a widely followed index construction methodology on which majority of global equity benchmarks are based. Market cap or market capitalization is simply the worth of a company in terms of its shares! To put it in a simple way, if you were to buy all the shares of a particular company, what is the amount you would have to pay? That amount is called the market capitalization!so its expressn can b.. Market cap = (current share price)X(number of shares issued by the company) Now, only the open market shares that are free for trading by anyone, are called the free-float shares.A simple way to understand the free-float market cap would be, the total cost of buying all the shares in the open market!BSE determines a free-float factor depending on ho w many shares are open in the total,then free-float market capitalization can be expressed as free-float Market cap= (free float factor)X(Market cap of the company) Now by adding free-float market cap of all the 30 companies listed and making it relative to sensex base, i.e, Sensex = 100X(free-float market cap1)/(free-float market cap of base year-1978-79) What are prerequisites for a company to be listed ? Some of the requirements are as under :- [I] Minimum Listing Requirements for new companies The following revised eligibility criteria for listing of companies on the Exchange, through Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) Follow-on Public Offerings (FPOs), effective August 1, 2006. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR IPOs/FPOs 1. Companies have been classified as large cap companies and small cap companies. A large cap company is a company with a minimum issue size of Rs. 10 crores and market capitalization of not less than Rs. 25 crores. A small cap company is a c ompany other than a large cap company. 1. In respect of Large Cap Companies 1. The minimum post-issue paid-up capital of the applicant company (hereinafter referred to as the Company) shall be Rs. 3 crores; and 2. The minimum issue size shall be Rs. 10 crores; and 3. The minimum market capitalization of the Company shall be Rs. 25 crores (market capitalization shall be calculated by multiplying the post-issue paid-up number of equity shares with the issue price). 2. In respect of Small Cap Companies 1. The minimum post-issue paid-up capital of the Company shall be Rs. 3 crores; and 2. The minimum issue size shall be Rs. 3 crores; and 3. The minimum market capitalization of the Company shall be Rs. 5 crores (market capitalization shall be calculated by multiplying the post-issue paid-up number of equity shares with the issue price); and 4. The minimum income/turnover of the Company should be Rs. 3 crores in each of the preceding three 12-months period; and 5. The minimum number of public shareholders after the issue shall be 1000. 6. A due diligence study may be conducted by an independent team of Chartered Accountants or Merchant Bankers appointed by the Exchange, the cost of which will be borne by the company. The requirement of a due diligence study may be waived if a financial institution or a scheduled commercial bank has appraised the project in the preceding 12 months. 2. For all companies : 1. In respect of the requirement of paid-up capital and market capitalisation, the issuers shall be required to include in the disclaimer clause forming a part of the offer document that in the event of the market capitalisation (product of issue price and the post issue number of shares) requirement of the Exchange not being met, the securities of the issuer would not be listed on the Exchange. 2. The applicant, promoters and/or group companies, should not be in default in compliance of the listing agreement. 3. The above eligibility criteria would be in addition to the conditions prescribed under SEBI (Disclosure and Investor Protection) Guidelines, 2000. [II] Minimum Listing Requirements for companies listed on other stock exchanges The Governing Board of the Exchange at its meeting held on 6th August, 2002 amended the direct listing norms for companies listed on other Stock Exchange(s) and seeking listing at BSE. These norms are applicable with immediate effect. 1. The company should have minimum issued and paid up equity capital of Rs. 3 crores. 2. The Company should have profit making track record for last three years. The revenues/profits arising out of extra ordinary items or income from any source of non-recurring nature should be excluded while calculating distributable profits. 3. Minimum networth of Rs. 20 crores (networth includes Equity capital and free reserves excluding revaluation reserves). 4. Minimum market capitalisation of the listed capital should be at least t wo times of the paid up capital. 5. The company should have a dividend paying track record for the last 3 consecutive years and the minimum dividend should be at least 10%. 6. Minimum 25% of the companys issued capital should be with Non-Promoters shareholders as per Clause 35 of the Listing Agreement. Out of above Non Promoter holding no single shareholder should hold more than 0.5% of the paid-up capital of the company individually or jointly with others except in case of Banks/Financial Institutions/Foreign Institutional Investors/Overseas Corporate Bodies and Non-Resident Indians. 7. The company should have at least two years listing record with any of the Regional Stock Exchange. 8. The company should sign an agreement with CDSL NSDL for demat trading. [III] Minimum Requirements for companies delisted by BSE seeking relisting of the Exchange The companies delisted by the Exchange and seeking relisting are required to make a fresh public offer and comply with the prevailing SEBIs and BSEs guidelines regarding initial public offerings. How do companies get listed on the stock market ? Here is how BSE lists companies which satisfy criterion,more or less same procedure is fallowed by other stock exchanges. Bombay Exchange has a separate Listing Department to grant approval for listing of securities of companies in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956, Securities Contracts (Regulation) Rules, 1957, Companies Act, 1956, Guidelines issued by SEBI and Rules, Bye-laws and Regulations of the Exchange. A company intending to have its securities listed on any Exchange has to comply with the listing requirements prescribed by the Exchange and regulating bodies. IV Permission to use the name of the Exchange in an Issuer Companys prospectus V Submission of Letter of Application VI Allotment of Securities VII Trading Permission VIII Requirement of 1% Security IX Payment of Listi ng Fees X Compliance with Listing Agreement XI Cash Management Services (CMS) Collection of Listing Fees [IV] Permission to use the name of the Exchange(for BSE) in an Issuer Companys prospectus The Exchange follows a procedure in terms of which companies desiring to list their securities offered through public issues are required to obtain its prior permission to use the name of the Exchange in their prospectus or offer for sale documents before filing the same with the concerned office of the Registrar of Companies. The Exchange has since last three years formed a Listing Committee to analyse draft prospectus/offer documents of the companies in respect of their forthcoming public issues of securities and decide upon the matter of granting them permission to use the name of Bombay Stock Exchange Limited in their prospectus/offer documents. The committee evaluates the promoters, company, project and several other factors before taking decision in this regard. List [V] Submission of Letter of Application As per Section 73 of the Companies Act, 1956, a company seeking listing of its securities on the Exchange is required to submit a Letter of Application to all the Stock Exchanges where it proposes to have its securities listed before filing the prospectus with the Registrar of Companies. List [VI] Allotment of Securities As per Listing Agreement, a company is required to complete allotment of securities offered to the public within 30 days of the date of closure of the subscription list and approach the Regional Stock Exchange, i.e. Stock Exchange nearest to its Registered Office for approval of the basis of allotment. In case of Book Building issue, Allotment shall be made not later than 15 days from the closure of the issue failing which interest at the rate of 15% shall be paid to the investors. List [VII] Trading Permission As per Securities and Exchange Board of India Guidelines, the issuer company should complete the formalities for trading at all the Stock Exchanges where the securities are to be listed within 7 working days of finalisation of Basis of Allotment. A company should scrupulously adhere to the time limit for allotment of all securities and dispatch of Allotment Letters/Share Certificates and Refund Orders and for obtaining the listing permissions of all the Exchanges whose names are stated in its prospectus or offer documents. In the event of listing permission to a company being denied by any Stock Exchange where it had applied for listing of its securities, it cannot proceed with the allotment of shares. However, the company may file an appeal before the Securities and Exchange Board of India under Section 22 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956. List [VIII] Requirement of 1% Security The companies making public/rights issues are required to deposit 1% of issue amount with the Regional Stock Exchange before the issue opens. This amount is liable to be forfeited in the event of the company not resolving the complaints of investors regarding delay in sending refund orders/share certificates, non-payment of commission to underwriters, brokers, etc. List [IX] Payment of Listing Fees All companies listed on the Exchange have to pay Annual Listing Fees by the 30th April of every financial year to the Exchange as per the Schedule of Listing Fees prescribed from time to time. The schedule of listing fees for the year 2007-2008, prescribed by the Governing Board of the Exchange is given hereunder : SCHEDULE OF LISTING FEES FOR THE YEAR 2007-2008 Sr. No. Particulars Amount (Rs.) 1 Initial Listing Fees 20,000 2 Annual Listing Fees (i) Companies with paid-up capital* upto Rs. 5 crores-10,000 (ii) AboveRs. 5 crores and upto Rs. 10 crores-15,000 (iii) Above Rs. 10 crores and upto Rs. 20 crores-30,000 3 Companies which have a listed capital* of more than Rs. 20 crores will pay additional fee of Rs. 750/- f or every increase of Rs. 1 crores or part thereof. 4 In case of debenture capital (not convertible into equity shares) of companies, the fees will be charged @ 25% of the fees payable as per the above mentioned scales. *includes equity shares, preference shares, fully convertible debentures, partly convertible debenture capital and any other security which will be converted into equity shares. Kindly Note the last date for payment of listing fee for the year 2007-2008 is April 30, 2007. Failure to pay the listing fee(for the equity and/or debt segment) before the due date i.e. April 30, 2007 will attract imposition of interest @ 12% per annum w.e.f. May 1, 2007. List [X] Compliance with Listing Agreement The companies desirous of getting their securities listed are required to enter into an agreement with the Exchange called the Listing Agreement and they are required to make certain disclosures and perform certain acts. As such, the agreement is of great importanc e and is executed under the common seal of a company. Under the Listing Agreement, a company undertakes, amongst other things, to provide facilities for prompt transfer, registration, sub-division and consolidation of securities; to give proper notice of closure of transfer books and record dates, to forward copies of unabridged Annual Reports and Balance Sheets to the shareholders, to file Distribution Schedule with the Exchange annually; to furnish financial results on a quarterly basis; intimate promptly to the Exchange the happenings which are likely to materially affect the financial performance of the Company and its stock prices, to comply with the conditions of Corporate Governance, etc. The Listing Department of the Exchange monitors the compliance of the companies with the provisions of the Listing Agreement, especially with regard to timely payment of annual listing fees, submission of quarterly results, requirement of minimum number of shareholders, etc. and takes pen al action against the defaulting companies. List [XI] Cash Management Services (CMS) Collection of Listing Fees As a further step towards simplifying the system of payment of listing fees, the Exchange has entered into an arrangement with HDFC Bank for collection of listing fees, from 141 locations, situated all over India.Details of the HDFC Bank branches, are available on our website site as well as on the HDFC Bank website The above facility is being provided free of cost to the Companies. Companies intending to utilise the above facility for payment of listing fee would be required to furnish the information, (mentioned below) in the Cash Management Cash Deposit Slip. These slips would be available at all the HDFC Bank centres. S.No HEAD INFORMATION TO BE PROVIDED 1. Client Name Bombay Stock Exchange Limited 2. Client Code BSELIST 3. Cheque No. mention the cheque No date 4. Date date on w hich payment is being deposited with the bank. 5. Drawer state the name of the company and the company code No.The last digits mentioned in the Ref. No. on the Bill is the company code No.e.g If the Ref. No in the Bill is mentioned as : Listing/Alf-Bill/2004-2005/4488, then the code No of that company is 4488 6. Drawee Bank state the bank on which cheque is drawn 7. Drawn on Location Mention the location of the drawee bank. 8. Pickup Location Not applicable 9. No. of Insts Not applicable The Cheque should be drawn in favour of Bombay Stock Exchange Limited , and should be payable, locally.Companies are requested to mention in the deposit slip, the financial year(s) for which listing fee is being paid. Payment made through any other slips would not be considered. The above slips will have to be filled in quadruplicate. One acknowledged copy would be provided to the depositor by the HDFC Bank. Development of sensex in last year 100 0, July 25, 1990 On July 25, 1990, the Sensex touched the four-digit figure for the first time and closed at 1,001 in the wake of a good monsoon and excellent corporate results 2000, January 15, 1992 On January 15, 1992, the Sensex crossed the 2,000-mark and closed at 2,020 followed by the liberal economic policy initiatives undertaken by the then finance minister and current Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh 3000, February 29, 1992 On February 29, 1992, the Sensex surged past the 3000 mark in the wake of the market-friendly Budget announced by Manmohan Singh. 4000, March 30, 1992 On March 30, 1992, the Sensex crossed the 4,000-mark and closed at 4,091 on the expectations of a liberal export-import policy. It was then that the Harshad Mehta scam hit the markets and Sensex witnessed unabated selling. 5000, October 11, 1999 On October 8, 1999, the Sensex crossed the 5,000-mark as the Bharatiya Janata Party-led coalition won the majority in the 13th Lok Sabha election. 6000, February 11, 2000 On February 11, 2000, the information technology boom helped the Sensex to cross the 6,000-mark and hit and all time high of 6,006. 7000, June 21, 2005 On June 20, 2005, the news of the settlement between the Ambani brothers boosted investor sentiments and the scrips of RIL, Reliance Energy, Reliance Capital and IPCL made huge gains. This helped the Sensex crossed 7,000 points for the first time. 8000, September 8, 2005 On September 8, 2005, the Bombay Stock Exchanges benchmark 30-share index the Sensex crossed the 8000 level following brisk buying by foreign and domestic funds in early trading. 9000, December 9, 2005 The Sensex on November 28, 2005 crossed 9000 to touch 9000.32 points during mid-session at the Bombay Stock Exchange on the back of frantic buying spree by foreign institutional investors and well supported by local operators as well as retail investors. 10,000, February 7, 2006 The Sensex on February 6, 2006 touched 10,003 points during mid-session. The Sensex finally closed above the 10,000-mark on February 7, 2006. 11,000, March 27, 2006 The Sensex on March 21, 2006 crossed 11,000 and touched a peak of 11,001 points during mid-session at the Bombay Stock Exchange for the first time. However, it was on March 27, 2006 that the Sensex first closed at over 11,000 points. 12,000, April 20, 2006 The Sensex on April 20, 2006 crossed 12,000 and touched a peak of 12,004 points during mid-session at the Bombay Stock Exchange for the first time. 13,000, October 30, 2006 The Sensex on October 30, 2006 crossed 13,000 for the first time. It touched a peak of 13,039.36 and finally closed at 13,024.26. 14000, December 5, 2006 The Sensex on December 5, 2006 crossed 14,000. 15,000, July 6, 2007 The Sensex on July 6, 2007 crossed 15,000 mark. 16,000, September 19, 2007 The Sensex on September 19, 2007 crossed the 16,000 mark. 17,000, September 26, 2007 The Sensex on September 26, 2007 cros sed the 17,000 mark for the first time. 18,000, October 9, 2007 The Sensex on October 9, 2007 crossed the 18,000 mark for the first time. 19,000, October 15, 2007 The Sensex on October 15, 2007 crossed the 19,000 mark for the first time. 20,000, October 29, 2007 The Sensex on October 29, 2007 crossed the 20,000 mark for the first time. 21,000, Jan 08, 2008 The Sensex on January 8, 2008 touched all time peak of 21078 before closing at 20873.[3] 13,000, October 30, 2006 The Sensex on October 30, 2006 crossed 13,000 and still riding high at the Bombay Stock Exchange for the first time. It took 135 days to reach 13,000 from 12,000. And 124 days to reach 13,000 from 12,500. On October 30, 2006 it touched a peak of 13,039.36 closed at 13,024.26. 14,000, December 5, 2006 The Sensex on December 5, 2006 crossed 14,000 and touched a peak of 14028 at 9.58AM(IST) while opening for the day December 5, 2006. 15,000, July 6, 2007- The Sensex on July 6, 2007 crossed anot her milestone and reached a magic figure of 15,000. it took almost 7 month and 1 day to touch such a historic milestone. Coincidentally, Sachin Tendulkar achieved the same mark (15000 runs in international cricket) around the same time. (A refrain at that time was, Sachin, make runs, so that the Sensex rises too!) The following diagram shows the growth of earning per share from 1998 to 2010. The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) Sensex grew by 249 percent over the last 10 years, while the Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) Composite Index managed 140 percent growth. This is more remarkable given the Shanghai market has the advantage of a fixed population access; Chinese nationals can only invest in the Shanghai or Shenzhen exchanges and require special permission to acquire stocks from overseas. Indians meanwhile are free to invest where they choose, however increasing amounts of foreign capital and returning Indian investment are now flowing back to India (the Shanghai Stock Exchange pl aces limitations on foreign investment with a only 79 foreign institutions currently able to buy and sell A (locally priced) shares). The BSE traces its roots back to 1830, with its primary trading index, the Sensex, being first compiled in 1986 with a base level of 100. The BSE is now the largest exchange in South Asia and the 12th largest globally with an estimated market capitalization of US$1.03 trillion in June 2009. There are over 4,o00 listed companies on the exchange. In contrast, the SSE was only reformed in 1990 and lists some 900 companies. It is the sixth largest exchange in the world with a market capitalization of US$2.07 trillion, but is dominated by government-owned companies and is not fully open to foreign investors. Shanghais primary index, the SSE Composite IX was formed in 1991 with a base value of 100. The Indian industries were greatly effected by the recession of the year 2010. Indian Economy, however just felt the blow of the global economic recession and the real economic growth have seen a sharp fall followed by the lower exports, capital outflow and corporate restructuring. It is expected that the global economies continue to stay strong in the short-term as the effect of stimulus is still strong and the tax cuts are working. Indias Economic Outlook Projection 2007 2008 2009 2010 GDP Growth 9.40% 7.30% 7.60% 8.30% CPI 6.40% 9.30% 5.50% 4.90% Year 2009 has started on the gloomy note, however the trend reversed from the first quarter of the year, financial markets posted strong gains fueled by huge amount of capital inflows which was set-aside during the economic downturn in search of a higher yield. In order to keep the economic growth during the time of worst recession, Federal authorities in India has announced the stimulus packages to prop-up the economic growth. To finance the stimulus packages, Indian Government has raised over $100 billion over the last four quarters in a way to finance the stimulus pack age. Countrys Public debt, according to the latest data has zoomed to over 50% of the total GDP and Indias Central bank, Reserve Bank of India has started printing new currency notes Don’t waste time! 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Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Career Development Pl F B Manager Essay - 1270 Words

Meijun Chen A47200231 11/16/16 Career Development Plan 1. Occupation: FB Manager This position of Food and beverage manager presupposes the responsibility for management of food and beverage service at every venue in hotel, restaurant, resort, institutional affiliation, etc. His primary task is to oversee the food and beverage service, evaluate the possible profits and losses, hire and resign the restaurant personnel. He considers food and beverage service for special parties, wedding receptions, conferences, and official meetings. This person thinks about the ways to promote special events to attract the attention of the publicity and business. i. Why I select this occupation The reason for choosing this occupation is the desire to work in the hospitality sphere. This position presupposes the high level of responsibility and high demand. Resorts and hotels remain one of the most successful sphere even in the economically difficult times. The job of FB provides the possibility of good job and remuneration. It also attracts by the possibility to improve my professional skills and chance of working with managers to enhance products and services. This position provides marvelous opportunities for the future career development. ii. Current job postings I have managed to find two job postings that demand hiring the F B manager. The first is at Starwood Hotels Resorts Worldwide, Inc. This position requires an individual, who could provide the excellent service to hotelShow MoreRelatedImpooving Employee Performance72019 Words   |  289 PagesPerformance Management System Seven Coaching Principles Manager as Coach Coach as Facilitator Coaching Managers Through the Appraisal Process 11. Sample Forms A Final Word Selected References Index About the Author 66 79 104 118 128 142 163 179 243 245 247 000 Foreword I was going through the attic recently, sorting through some ancient ï ¬ les. 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A Market-Manager Rationality Framework Antonios Antoniou and Huainan Zhao 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Introduction Hypothesis development Data and descriptive statistics Methodology Empirical results Conclusion 5 5 7 8 10 11 24 3 Misadventure and the Form of Payment in Corporate Acquisitions Tyrone M. Carlin, GuyRead MoreAnalysis of Google Hr Strategy8548 Words   |  35 Pagesare everything. We hope to recruit many more in the future. W e will reward and treat them well.† L arry Page and Sergey Brin, Founders of Google 1 . Introduction M anaging h uman r esources effectively h as b ecome vital to organizations w ithin t he m odern and f ast† paced b usiness environment ( Caldwell, Chatman, OReilly , 1990 ) . H uman Resources specialists are m ore important in business strategies today w here m arket is dynamic and c hangeable . 1 .1. 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Line managers, typically spend more than 50 percent of their time for human resource activities such hiring, evaluating, disciplining, and scheduling employees. Human resource management specialists in the HRM department help organizations with all activities related to staffing and maintaining an effective workforce. Major HRM responsibilities include work design and job analysis, training and development, recruiting, compensation, team-building, performance

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Land That Contains Substances Environmental Sciences Essay Free Essays

Metallic elements have played an of import function in the development of adult male, gold and Cu, both native metals have been worked into desirable objects since 15000BC. ‘Advanced ‘ smelting techniques were developed by 4000BC, used to pull out Cu from ores and within a farther 1,000 old ages, other metals were being extracted, including Ag, lead, Sn and Zn. The development of the blast furnace centuries subsequently led to the big scale production of Fe and steel ( sgm. We will write a custom essay sample on Land That Contains Substances Environmental Sciences Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2002 ) . The last 100 old ages has seen Great Britain shaped by the ‘great ‘ industrial revolution and witnessed the development of a overplus of industries, notably, the steel, coal and chemical industries. Industrial ‘visionaries ‘ , focused on the development of industry had non planned a sustainable hereafter and the effects to the environment were overridden by enlargement. It is this deficiency of planning that has led to historical industrial procedures leting waste to be disposed of by merely tipping it onto the land, chemicals and natural stuffs were frequently spilt in situ ensuing in land taint ( 2012 ) . Contaminated land Land that contains substances in or under the land that are considered to be a possible jeopardy to human wellness or the Environment is considered to be ‘Contaminated ‘ ( 2012 ) . Contamination can be categorised into assorted signifiers and can impact in different ways, depending upon legion factors including ; type, concentration and the nature of the substance ensuing in a huge array of impacts to both human wellness and the environment ( 2012 ) . A study undertaken by the British Geological Survey ( BGS ) in 2009, estimates that in England entirely, there are around 15,470 hectares of land that is classed as contaminated ( 2009 ) . Contamination is assessed on a site – site footing, in a command to ease the deployment of the most efficient and operable technique. In order to find the best technique, inside informations of the contamination ( s ) contained within the dirt foremost necessitate to be assessed along with the type of land stuffs present at the surface and in the subsurface ( 2010 ) . Following initial probes, contaminations can be determined and classified into groups depending on their belongingss ( organic or inorganic ) ( Brown 2009 ) . Table 1: Contaminant categories used to find redress technique applied. Adapted from ( 2010 ) . Organic Typical illustrations Halogenated volatile organic compounds ( VOCs ) 1-chlrobutane, methoxyflurane, pentafluoropropan-1ol Halogenated semivolatile organic compounds ( SVOCs ) Chlorophenol, Tetrachlorophenol, Chlordane Non-halongenated volatile organic compounds ( VOCs ) Benzene, Xylene, propanone, Carbon disulphide Non-halongenated semivolatile organic compounds ( SVOCs ) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAH ) , phenol Organic Corrosives Acetic acid, aminobenzine Organic nitriles Organonitriles Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) PCB ( Arochlor ) -1016 Pesticides / weedkillers 4, 4-DDT, Heptachlor Dioxins / Furans 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran Inorganic Metallic elements Lead, Mercury, Chromium, Zinc Radionuclides Radioactive isotopes of U, radon Corrosives Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid Nitriles Metallic nitriles Asbestos Blue, brown, white Misc Explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene ( TNT ) , hydrazine Table 1 is intended to supply a fundamental position of the categorization of contaminations, measuring the rightness of redress techniques is a complicated procedure in world, in world, several constituent contaminations will be contained within the mark site, each class of contamination would be assessed separately to measure the pertinence of a redress technique ( 2012 ) . Redress of contaminated land Environmental hazards associated with contaminated land are typically remediated – a technique that seeks to take contaminations contained within the dirt ( 2012 ) . Redress techniques are typically capable to an array of regulative demands – Part 2A of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 that is based on the likeliness of important injury to human wellness and important pollution of the H2O environment ( 2012 ) . Appropriate redress The appropriate redress solution should be implemented to ensue in the land being ‘suitable for usage ‘ . Remediation should render the land no longer contaminated and the effects of any important injury, or pollution of controlled Waterss that has occurred has been remedied, the suitably selected redress technique can in many state of affairss see the degree of taint reduced to such a degree that any considered important hazard is minimum, this does non nevertheless connote that all contaminations are removed wholly, in some state of affairss the contaminations are at such low degrees that they pose no hazard or that they are for good contained unmoved ( 2004 ) . Remediation engineerings available Historically, the redress of contaminated land can be expensive and relies to a great extent upon procedures that are basically really proficient ( 2010 ) . Many of these procedures have involved heavy technology solutions, although considered to be really effectual, and in many instances, the merely feasible option, they have high environmental, societal and economic impacts ( 2012 ) . Categorization of dirt redress engineerings Soil redress engineerings can be categorised into four distinguishable wide categories ( Table 1 ) harmonizing to the cardinal rules involved in the remotion / containment of contamination ( s ) which can be farther sub-divided into unmoved and ex-situ techniques ( 2012 ) . In situ clean-ups require no digging of contaminated stuff, in situ techniques are frequently preferable because of their lower application cost ; nevertheless, the general consensus is that these techniques take longer to make the preferable position and are more hard to supervise because of non-uniformity in intervention because of discrepancies in dirt stuffs ( DETR 1998 ) . Ex situ attacks ( digging of a contaminated country ) and handling it on site ( antique situ, on-site ) or transporting it to a distant site for ‘cleaning ‘ ( ex situ, off-site ) is by and large considered to be the more expensive option given the logistics of the operation, nevertheless, ex-situ techniques present the advantage of taking the bulk of taint forestalling farther spread ( 2012 ) . Table 1: Overview of both in situ and ex situ redress engineerings available, adapted from: ( 2010 ) . In-situ Technology Biological Physical Chemical Thermal Chemical oxidization and decrease i Electro – redress i i Enhanced bioremediation utilizing redox amendments i Blushing i i i Phytoremediation i Air Sparging i Biosparging i Stabilization and hardening i i Thermal Treatment i Venting i i Vitrification i i i Ex situ Biopiles i Slurry stage bioreactors i Chemical oxidization and decrease i Soil lavation and separation procedures i i Stabilization and hardening i i Thermal desorption i Incineration i Ex situ dirt vapour extraction i i Vitrification i i i Water and gas / vapour intervention i i i Biological redress engineerings Bioremediation uses micro-organisms ( barm, fungi or bacteriums ) to degrade organic contaminations ; bioremediation can be carried out both unmoved and ex-situ. The contaminations act as a nutrient beginning for the micro-organisms that break them down. Aerobic processes require a beginning of O, chase awaying C dioxide COa‚‚ and H2O H2O ( 2012 ) ( Figure 1 ) Figure 1: Conventional diagram of aerophilic biodegradation in dirt ( 2008 ) . Ex situ techniques include slurry-phase bioremediation, a procedure of keeping contact between micro-organisms and contaminations by adding H2O to contaminated dirts to organize ‘slurry ‘ ( 2012 ) . Other bioremediation techniques include ; Bioventing Injection of H peroxide ( H202 ) Solid stage bioremediation Landfarming Dirt biopiles Composting ( 2012 ) . Bioremediation is an economical procedure for a wide scope of applications of organic wastes. Many of the procedures can be handled in situ avoiding the demand to transport risky stuffs from site ( 2005 ) . Physico – Chemical interventions Physical methods of dirt renewal are those that do non alter the physic-chemical belongingss of the pollutants accumulated in the dirt to be cleaned ( 2007 ) . Physical redress techniques include simplified procedures such as dirt extraction and storage of contaminated dirts along with more complicated and technological techniques ( 2010 ) . In the physical procedures, the stage transportation of pollutants is induced. In the chemical processes, the chemical construction of the pollutants is changed by agencies of chemical reactions to bring forth less toxic or better dissociable compounds from the solid matrix ( 2012 ) . Physical redress techniques offer a cost effectual solution that can be concluded comparatively rapidly, and devour really small technology or energy resources ( 2012 ) . Physical applications can be engaged both unmoved and ex-situ, and have the advantage that a wide spectrum of pollutants can be removed from the contaminated site and that they can be widely administered ( little, local sites ) ( 2012 ) . Physical-chemical interventions include ; Dirt Blushing Dirt lavation ( Figure 2 ) . Fracturing hypertext transfer protocol: // Figure 2: Dirt rinsing technique ( 2010 ) Thermal interventions It is by and large considered that thermic procedures are the most dearly-won, nevertheless, a speedy redress clip is offered as compensation ( 2012 ) . Thermal redress involves the debut of hydrocarbon contaminated dirts into a het vas and retaining those dirts until they reach a unvarying temperature. Contaminants are heated by the thermic procedure, heat is applied to increase the volatility, to fire, break up, destruct or run the contamination. The hazard of let go ofing dioxins into the ambiance is an of import consideration and hence, runing temperatures are limited to 800A °F ( 2006 ) . Factors that influence the timescale of effectivity are the type and sums of contaminations present that scope from site to site, the physical size of the site and dirt stuff nowadays ( clu-in-org 2012 ) . Thermal techniques can be applied both unmoved and ex-situ, the rule advantage of unmoved techniques is that dirt can be treated without the demand to take and transport cut downing operating costs, nevertheless, unmoved techniques by and large take longer to de-contaminate a site and cost nest eggs are negligible. Ex-situ techniques involve the digging and remotion of contaminated dirts where they are exposed to high temperatures in intervention cells ; the cells contain contaminated media during the application. Although ex-situ techniques offer a decreased intervention clip, increased logistical deductions offset intervention costs ( clu-in-org 2012 ) . Thermal techniques typically include ; Hot gas taint Vitrification Injection of hot air Thermal Conduction Additional techniques are shown in tabular array? hypertext transfer protocol: // % 20thermische % 20reiniging.PNG Figure 3: Diagram of thermic cleaning ( 2012 ) . 2.0 A critical appraisal of the effectivity of dirt redress techniques and the protection of groundwater 2.1 The Groundwater system â€Å" The largest available reservoir of fresh H2O † ( 2012 ) Water that is continually traveling through the environment is known as the H2O rhythm, nevertheless, most of the rain that falls will be soaked up by dirt, through the procedure of infiltration, H2O will soak farther down into the land and finally into underlying stones, this is known as groundwater ( 2012 ) . 2.2 The importance of groundwater 70 % of the planetary capacity of fresh water is groundwater, 30 % of this sum is found within rivers, lakes and watercourses, many of these rivers and lakes etc. are fed straight by groundwater, it can non be underestimated how much groundwater plays an of import function within the human civilization, groundwater is the line of life afforded to planetary wetland sites and a major helper to industry in a planetary context ( 1999 ) . Whilst groundwater is by and large of good biological quality, it is invariably threated by contaminations, pollutants that seep through the surface and into the groundwater system, pollution occurs from diffuse beginnings when a pollutant is spread onto the land in the signifier of an applied agricultural pesticide for illustration and besides from point beginning pollution, where a chemical spillage has occurred for illustration. Some pollutants inputs will of course degrade or will be filtered out as the H2O flows through permeable stones, but on many occasions, the pollutants are relentless types and have to be subjected to typically dearly-won redress procedures ( 2012 ) . Figure 4: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ( 2007 ) . 3.0 Are dirt redress engineerings effectual at protecting groundwater? The mobility and destiny of contaminations that enter dirt are determined by a figure of factors ( postpone? ) , in order for a comprehensive and realistic site hazard appraisal to be carried out, consideration should be given to the nature and prevalent conditions in the dirts, including ; geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, contaminant geochemistry, geotechnics, ecotoxicology and microbiology, one time these have been decently addressed, a predicted behavior theoretical account of the contamination can be produced to help in the choice of the most efficient and cost effectual redress technique ( 2012 ) . Relevant dirt and groundwater belongingss may include: Relevant contaminant Physico-chemical belongingss may include: Soil profile Contaminant concentration Dirt texture ( comparative proportions of sand, loam and clay ) Chemical speciation e.g. the valency or oxidization province of a metal Presence of mineral components such as clays, carbonates, phosphates, oxides and organic affair ( expressed as the fraction of organic C foc ) Solubility in H2O ( or other dissolver if a non-aqueous free stage liquid is present ) Moisture content Sorption ( soil-water divider coefficient Kd and organic carbon-water divider coefficient Koc ) Particle size distribution Octanol-water divider coefficient ( kow ) Bulk dry denseness Vapour force per unit area Porosity ( air-filled and water-filled ) Henry ‘s Law invariable Sorption capacity of the dirt Biodegradation pH and redox possible Nature of metabolites Microbial populations Vegetable consumption ( dirt to works concentration ) Elevation of H2O tabular array Weathering possible Groundwater flow way Diffusion coefficient in air Hydraulic gradient Diffusion coefficient in H2O Hydraulic conduction Viscosity ( gases and bluess ) Hydraulic dispersivity Viscosity ( non-aqueous stage liquids ) Table? : Factors act uponing the destiny and mobility rate of contaminations in dirt, adapted from ( 2012 ) . How to cite Land That Contains Substances Environmental Sciences Essay, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Amazon and eBay free essay sample

What are the business benefits to Amazon and eBay of opening up some of their database to developers and entrepreneurs? Do you agree with this strategy? Why or why not? Amazon and eBay have opened the database doors to thousands of developers and entrepreneurs since 2002. They realized very quickly the benefits of this, which was once thought of as risky experiment. A database is a collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select the desired pieces of data. It is therefore seen as an electronic filing system. Databases are categorized into Hierarchical, Relational, Object-oriented and Multi-dimensional Networks. Traditional databases are organized by fields, records, and files. A field is a single piece of information, a record is one complete set of fields and a file is a collection of records. For instance, a telephone book. It contains a list of records, each of which consists of three fields: name, address, and telephone number. Both Amazon and EBay has benefited by opening the doors for entrepreneurs and developers to tap into their data warehouses by: When the company opened its data vaults in 2002, with the support of the very first project Amazon Web Services, entrepreneurs, developers and businesses have tapped into the data. With this data, they began building money making Web sites, new online shopping interfaces, and innovative services for thousands Amazon’s independent sellers. eBay joined in with Amazon shortly thereafter. In doing so, they can interact, build and expand existing business partnerships with other companies. Opening and sharing databases has unlocked the possibility of what is believed to be the Web’s great new beyond. This is an era in which online businesses now operate as an open-ended software. This means platforms can now accommodate thousands of other business selling symbiotic products and services. The rise in open databases and Web services goes even further such that holding out the promise of automating the links between online businesses by applications that depend on companies sharing their vital data. Amazon, eBay and Google have taken advantage of this business and have taken it to new heights. Opening up databases to developers reaped enormous profits. Jeff Bezos the CEO of Amazon, felt that the company could benefit from making its databases available and it would expand the company’s online footprint and drive more sales. Meg Whitman, the chief executive at eBay called out to the eBay’s developer community, opening the company’s $3 billion database of 33 million weekly auction items to the Technorati. Some 15,000 developers and others have since registered to use that prized database and access other software features. Amazon was first to move forward with the idea of opening its databases in 2002. Databases as described in the text, â€Å"are an integrated collection of logically related data elements. A database consolidates many records previously stored in separate files so that a common pool of data serves many applications.† As mentioned on the second page of the Case Study, of the 65,000 entrepreneurs and developers that have decided to take advantage of Amazon’s open door approach about one-third have been tinkering with the software tools that help the 800,000 sellers of Amazon. Amazon has in turn benefited from the added efficiency to its site. Amazon and eBay became more popular and productive by opening up some of their database to developers and entrepreneurs. Amazon opened their data vaults in 2002 in which they made data available to 65,000 developers businesses and other entrepreneurs. In doing so they were able to make a transition from â€Å"Earth’s Biggest Bookstore† to â€Å"Big piece of software available over web†. This have indeed generated software tools which assist 800,000 Amazon sellers. These include Scout Pal (service turns mobile phones into barcode scanners) and Seller Engine Scout Pal (helps merchants on main site to upload their inventory, check prices and automation of adding new listings). As a result of this action, the companys sales volume have augmented hence enhanced profit margins. Both companies have also generated employment for the upcoming generation as well as becoming more accessible to the market. Firstly by furnishing a positive output to the organizations mass production and easy functioning of activities with their employees and customers. In doing so, they have made it more efficient and effective whereby customers can now give valid feedback on ways which they could improve the database in satisfying the customers needs which would result in customer satisfaction. It is much easier for customers and employees to search and make choices from the seller options. So I think for the organizations as such, this kind of strategy does works but it may not be applicable to all kinds of organizations where security issues are very important, because it may not be secure to do this. expanding the companys online footprint thus creating and building money making websites. Business Benefits – Amazon EbayExperimental RD for free – no expense for company.Expansion of company’s online footprint. Felicitates building moneymaking websites.New online shopping interface.Innovative services for 1000s of Amazon, Ebay and independent sellers.Increased Sales for the company.Development of software tools that help the company’s customers.Automation of links between online business and applications.Enhanced Market space for Sellers and buyers.