Sunday, May 24, 2020

Introduction To The SENSEX Index Example For Free - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 12 Words: 3613 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Economics Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? BSE is the first stock exchange in the country to obtain permanent recognition in 1956 from the Government of India.The Exchange has a nation-wide reach with a presence in 417 cities and towns of India.The Exchanges role in the development of the Indian capital market is widely recognized and its index, SENSEX, is tracked worldwide. The BSE Sensex or Bombay Stock Exchange Sensitivity Index is a value-weighted index composed of 30 stocks that started January 1, 1986. The Sensex is regarded as the pulse of the domestic stock markets in India. It consists of the 30 largest and most actively traded stocks, representative of various sectors, on the Bombay Stock Exchange. These companies account for around fifty per cent of the market capitalisation of the BSE. The base value of the sensex is 100 on April 1, 1979, and the base year of BSE-SENSEX is 1978-79. Earlier an Association of Persons (AOP).The Exchange is professionally managed under the overall direction o f the Board of Directors.The Board comprises eminent professionals, representatives of Trading Members and the Managing Director of the Exchange.In terms of organisation structure, the Board formulates larger policy issues and exercises over-all control. The committees constituted by the Board are broad-based.The day-to-dayoperations of the Exchange are managed by the Managing Director and a management team of professionals. Analysis of sensex How is sensex index calculated ? SENSEX, first compiled in 1986 was calculated on a Market Capitalization-Weighted methodology of 30 component stocks representing a sample of large, well-established and financially sound companies.These companies account for around one-fifth of the market capitalization of the BSE(indices). The base year of SENSEX is 1978-79(April.1ÂÂ  1979 = 100). The index is widely reported in both domestic and international markets through print as well as electronic media. SENSEX is not only scientifically d esigned but also based on globally accepted construction and review methodology. From September 2003, the SENSEX is calculated on a free-float marke capitalization methodology. The free-float Market Capitalization-Weighted methodology is a widely followed index construction methodology on which majority of global equity benchmarks are based. Market cap or market capitalization is simply the worth of a company in terms of its shares! To put it in a simple way, if you were to buy all the shares of a particular company, what is the amount you would have to pay? That amount is called the market capitalization!so its expressn can b.. Market cap = (current share price)X(number of shares issued by the company) Now, only the open market shares that are free for trading by anyone, are called the free-float shares.A simple way to understand the free-float market cap would be, the total cost of buying all the shares in the open market!BSE determines a free-float factor depending on ho w many shares are open in the total,then free-float market capitalization can be expressed as free-float Market cap= (free float factor)X(Market cap of the company) Now by adding free-float market cap of all the 30 companies listed and making it relative to sensex base, i.e, Sensex = 100X(free-float market cap1)/(free-float market cap of base year-1978-79) What are prerequisites for a company to be listed ? Some of the requirements are as under :- [I] Minimum Listing Requirements for new companies The following revised eligibility criteria for listing of companies on the Exchange, through Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) Follow-on Public Offerings (FPOs), effective August 1, 2006. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR IPOs/FPOs 1. Companies have been classified as large cap companies and small cap companies. A large cap company is a company with a minimum issue size of Rs. 10 crores and market capitalization of not less than Rs. 25 crores. A small cap company is a c ompany other than a large cap company. 1. In respect of Large Cap Companies 1. The minimum post-issue paid-up capital of the applicant company (hereinafter referred to as the Company) shall be Rs. 3 crores; and 2. The minimum issue size shall be Rs. 10 crores; and 3. The minimum market capitalization of the Company shall be Rs. 25 crores (market capitalization shall be calculated by multiplying the post-issue paid-up number of equity shares with the issue price). 2. In respect of Small Cap Companies 1. The minimum post-issue paid-up capital of the Company shall be Rs. 3 crores; and 2. The minimum issue size shall be Rs. 3 crores; and 3. The minimum market capitalization of the Company shall be Rs. 5 crores (market capitalization shall be calculated by multiplying the post-issue paid-up number of equity shares with the issue price); and 4. The minimum income/turnover of the Company should be Rs. 3 crores in each of the preceding three 12-months period; and 5. The minimum number of public shareholders after the issue shall be 1000. 6. A due diligence study may be conducted by an independent team of Chartered Accountants or Merchant Bankers appointed by the Exchange, the cost of which will be borne by the company. The requirement of a due diligence study may be waived if a financial institution or a scheduled commercial bank has appraised the project in the preceding 12 months. 2. For all companies : 1. In respect of the requirement of paid-up capital and market capitalisation, the issuers shall be required to include in the disclaimer clause forming a part of the offer document that in the event of the market capitalisation (product of issue price and the post issue number of shares) requirement of the Exchange not being met, the securities of the issuer would not be listed on the Exchange. 2. The applicant, promoters and/or group companies, should not be in default in compliance of the listing agreement. 3. The above eligibility criteria would be in addition to the conditions prescribed under SEBI (Disclosure and Investor Protection) Guidelines, 2000. [II] Minimum Listing Requirements for companies listed on other stock exchanges The Governing Board of the Exchange at its meeting held on 6th August, 2002 amended the direct listing norms for companies listed on other Stock Exchange(s) and seeking listing at BSE. These norms are applicable with immediate effect. 1. The company should have minimum issued and paid up equity capital of Rs. 3 crores. 2. The Company should have profit making track record for last three years. The revenues/profits arising out of extra ordinary items or income from any source of non-recurring nature should be excluded while calculating distributable profits. 3. Minimum networth of Rs. 20 crores (networth includes Equity capital and free reserves excluding revaluation reserves). 4. Minimum market capitalisation of the listed capital should be at least t wo times of the paid up capital. 5. The company should have a dividend paying track record for the last 3 consecutive years and the minimum dividend should be at least 10%. 6. Minimum 25% of the companys issued capital should be with Non-Promoters shareholders as per Clause 35 of the Listing Agreement. Out of above Non Promoter holding no single shareholder should hold more than 0.5% of the paid-up capital of the company individually or jointly with others except in case of Banks/Financial Institutions/Foreign Institutional Investors/Overseas Corporate Bodies and Non-Resident Indians. 7. The company should have at least two years listing record with any of the Regional Stock Exchange. 8. The company should sign an agreement with CDSL NSDL for demat trading. [III] Minimum Requirements for companies delisted by BSE seeking relisting of the Exchange The companies delisted by the Exchange and seeking relisting are required to make a fresh public offer and comply with the prevailing SEBIs and BSEs guidelines regarding initial public offerings. How do companies get listed on the stock market ? Here is how BSE lists companies which satisfy criterion,more or less same procedure is fallowed by other stock exchanges. Bombay Exchange has a separate Listing Department to grant approval for listing of securities of companies in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956, Securities Contracts (Regulation) Rules, 1957, Companies Act, 1956, Guidelines issued by SEBI and Rules, Bye-laws and Regulations of the Exchange. A company intending to have its securities listed on any Exchange has to comply with the listing requirements prescribed by the Exchange and regulating bodies. IV Permission to use the name of the Exchange in an Issuer Companys prospectus V Submission of Letter of Application VI Allotment of Securities VII Trading Permission VIII Requirement of 1% Security IX Payment of Listi ng Fees X Compliance with Listing Agreement XI Cash Management Services (CMS) Collection of Listing Fees [IV] Permission to use the name of the Exchange(for BSE) in an Issuer Companys prospectus The Exchange follows a procedure in terms of which companies desiring to list their securities offered through public issues are required to obtain its prior permission to use the name of the Exchange in their prospectus or offer for sale documents before filing the same with the concerned office of the Registrar of Companies. The Exchange has since last three years formed a Listing Committee to analyse draft prospectus/offer documents of the companies in respect of their forthcoming public issues of securities and decide upon the matter of granting them permission to use the name of Bombay Stock Exchange Limited in their prospectus/offer documents. The committee evaluates the promoters, company, project and several other factors before taking decision in this regard. List [V] Submission of Letter of Application As per Section 73 of the Companies Act, 1956, a company seeking listing of its securities on the Exchange is required to submit a Letter of Application to all the Stock Exchanges where it proposes to have its securities listed before filing the prospectus with the Registrar of Companies. List [VI] Allotment of Securities As per Listing Agreement, a company is required to complete allotment of securities offered to the public within 30 days of the date of closure of the subscription list and approach the Regional Stock Exchange, i.e. Stock Exchange nearest to its Registered Office for approval of the basis of allotment. In case of Book Building issue, Allotment shall be made not later than 15 days from the closure of the issue failing which interest at the rate of 15% shall be paid to the investors. List [VII] Trading Permission As per Securities and Exchange Board of India Guidelines, the issuer company should complete the formalities for trading at all the Stock Exchanges where the securities are to be listed within 7 working days of finalisation of Basis of Allotment. A company should scrupulously adhere to the time limit for allotment of all securities and dispatch of Allotment Letters/Share Certificates and Refund Orders and for obtaining the listing permissions of all the Exchanges whose names are stated in its prospectus or offer documents. In the event of listing permission to a company being denied by any Stock Exchange where it had applied for listing of its securities, it cannot proceed with the allotment of shares. However, the company may file an appeal before the Securities and Exchange Board of India under Section 22 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956. List [VIII] Requirement of 1% Security The companies making public/rights issues are required to deposit 1% of issue amount with the Regional Stock Exchange before the issue opens. This amount is liable to be forfeited in the event of the company not resolving the complaints of investors regarding delay in sending refund orders/share certificates, non-payment of commission to underwriters, brokers, etc. List [IX] Payment of Listing Fees All companies listed on the Exchange have to pay Annual Listing Fees by the 30th April of every financial year to the Exchange as per the Schedule of Listing Fees prescribed from time to time. The schedule of listing fees for the year 2007-2008, prescribed by the Governing Board of the Exchange is given hereunder : SCHEDULE OF LISTING FEES FOR THE YEAR 2007-2008 Sr. No. Particulars Amount (Rs.) 1 Initial Listing Fees 20,000 2 Annual Listing Fees (i) Companies with paid-up capital* upto Rs. 5 crores-10,000 (ii) AboveRs. 5 crores and upto Rs. 10 crores-15,000 (iii) Above Rs. 10 crores and upto Rs. 20 crores-30,000 3 Companies which have a listed capital* of more than Rs. 20 crores will pay additional fee of Rs. 750/- f or every increase of Rs. 1 crores or part thereof. 4 In case of debenture capital (not convertible into equity shares) of companies, the fees will be charged @ 25% of the fees payable as per the above mentioned scales. *includes equity shares, preference shares, fully convertible debentures, partly convertible debenture capital and any other security which will be converted into equity shares. Kindly Note the last date for payment of listing fee for the year 2007-2008 is April 30, 2007. Failure to pay the listing fee(for the equity and/or debt segment) before the due date i.e. April 30, 2007 will attract imposition of interest @ 12% per annum w.e.f. May 1, 2007. List [X] Compliance with Listing Agreement The companies desirous of getting their securities listed are required to enter into an agreement with the Exchange called the Listing Agreement and they are required to make certain disclosures and perform certain acts. As such, the agreement is of great importanc e and is executed under the common seal of a company. Under the Listing Agreement, a company undertakes, amongst other things, to provide facilities for prompt transfer, registration, sub-division and consolidation of securities; to give proper notice of closure of transfer books and record dates, to forward copies of unabridged Annual Reports and Balance Sheets to the shareholders, to file Distribution Schedule with the Exchange annually; to furnish financial results on a quarterly basis; intimate promptly to the Exchange the happenings which are likely to materially affect the financial performance of the Company and its stock prices, to comply with the conditions of Corporate Governance, etc. The Listing Department of the Exchange monitors the compliance of the companies with the provisions of the Listing Agreement, especially with regard to timely payment of annual listing fees, submission of quarterly results, requirement of minimum number of shareholders, etc. and takes pen al action against the defaulting companies. List [XI] Cash Management Services (CMS) Collection of Listing Fees As a further step towards simplifying the system of payment of listing fees, the Exchange has entered into an arrangement with HDFC Bank for collection of listing fees, from 141 locations, situated all over India.Details of the HDFC Bank branches, are available on our website site as well as on the HDFC Bank website The above facility is being provided free of cost to the Companies. Companies intending to utilise the above facility for payment of listing fee would be required to furnish the information, (mentioned below) in the Cash Management Cash Deposit Slip. These slips would be available at all the HDFC Bank centres. S.No HEAD INFORMATION TO BE PROVIDED 1. Client Name Bombay Stock Exchange Limited 2. Client Code BSELIST 3. Cheque No. mention the cheque No date 4. Date date on w hich payment is being deposited with the bank. 5. Drawer state the name of the company and the company code No.The last digits mentioned in the Ref. No. on the Bill is the company code No.e.g If the Ref. No in the Bill is mentioned as : Listing/Alf-Bill/2004-2005/4488, then the code No of that company is 4488 6. Drawee Bank state the bank on which cheque is drawn 7. Drawn on Location Mention the location of the drawee bank. 8. Pickup Location Not applicable 9. No. of Insts Not applicable The Cheque should be drawn in favour of Bombay Stock Exchange Limited , and should be payable, locally.Companies are requested to mention in the deposit slip, the financial year(s) for which listing fee is being paid. Payment made through any other slips would not be considered. The above slips will have to be filled in quadruplicate. One acknowledged copy would be provided to the depositor by the HDFC Bank. Development of sensex in last year 100 0, July 25, 1990 On July 25, 1990, the Sensex touched the four-digit figure for the first time and closed at 1,001 in the wake of a good monsoon and excellent corporate results 2000, January 15, 1992 On January 15, 1992, the Sensex crossed the 2,000-mark and closed at 2,020 followed by the liberal economic policy initiatives undertaken by the then finance minister and current Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh 3000, February 29, 1992 On February 29, 1992, the Sensex surged past the 3000 mark in the wake of the market-friendly Budget announced by Manmohan Singh. 4000, March 30, 1992 On March 30, 1992, the Sensex crossed the 4,000-mark and closed at 4,091 on the expectations of a liberal export-import policy. It was then that the Harshad Mehta scam hit the markets and Sensex witnessed unabated selling. 5000, October 11, 1999 On October 8, 1999, the Sensex crossed the 5,000-mark as the Bharatiya Janata Party-led coalition won the majority in the 13th Lok Sabha election. 6000, February 11, 2000 On February 11, 2000, the information technology boom helped the Sensex to cross the 6,000-mark and hit and all time high of 6,006. 7000, June 21, 2005 On June 20, 2005, the news of the settlement between the Ambani brothers boosted investor sentiments and the scrips of RIL, Reliance Energy, Reliance Capital and IPCL made huge gains. This helped the Sensex crossed 7,000 points for the first time. 8000, September 8, 2005 On September 8, 2005, the Bombay Stock Exchanges benchmark 30-share index the Sensex crossed the 8000 level following brisk buying by foreign and domestic funds in early trading. 9000, December 9, 2005 The Sensex on November 28, 2005 crossed 9000 to touch 9000.32 points during mid-session at the Bombay Stock Exchange on the back of frantic buying spree by foreign institutional investors and well supported by local operators as well as retail investors. 10,000, February 7, 2006 The Sensex on February 6, 2006 touched 10,003 points during mid-session. The Sensex finally closed above the 10,000-mark on February 7, 2006. 11,000, March 27, 2006 The Sensex on March 21, 2006 crossed 11,000 and touched a peak of 11,001 points during mid-session at the Bombay Stock Exchange for the first time. However, it was on March 27, 2006 that the Sensex first closed at over 11,000 points. 12,000, April 20, 2006 The Sensex on April 20, 2006 crossed 12,000 and touched a peak of 12,004 points during mid-session at the Bombay Stock Exchange for the first time. 13,000, October 30, 2006 The Sensex on October 30, 2006 crossed 13,000 for the first time. It touched a peak of 13,039.36 and finally closed at 13,024.26. 14000, December 5, 2006 The Sensex on December 5, 2006 crossed 14,000. 15,000, July 6, 2007 The Sensex on July 6, 2007 crossed 15,000 mark. 16,000, September 19, 2007 The Sensex on September 19, 2007 crossed the 16,000 mark. 17,000, September 26, 2007 The Sensex on September 26, 2007 cros sed the 17,000 mark for the first time. 18,000, October 9, 2007 The Sensex on October 9, 2007 crossed the 18,000 mark for the first time. 19,000, October 15, 2007 The Sensex on October 15, 2007 crossed the 19,000 mark for the first time. 20,000, October 29, 2007 The Sensex on October 29, 2007 crossed the 20,000 mark for the first time. 21,000, Jan 08, 2008 The Sensex on January 8, 2008 touched all time peak of 21078 before closing at 20873.[3] 13,000, October 30, 2006 The Sensex on October 30, 2006 crossed 13,000 and still riding high at the Bombay Stock Exchange for the first time. It took 135 days to reach 13,000 from 12,000. And 124 days to reach 13,000 from 12,500. On October 30, 2006 it touched a peak of 13,039.36 closed at 13,024.26. 14,000, December 5, 2006 The Sensex on December 5, 2006 crossed 14,000 and touched a peak of 14028 at 9.58AM(IST) while opening for the day December 5, 2006. 15,000, July 6, 2007- The Sensex on July 6, 2007 crossed anot her milestone and reached a magic figure of 15,000. it took almost 7 month and 1 day to touch such a historic milestone. Coincidentally, Sachin Tendulkar achieved the same mark (15000 runs in international cricket) around the same time. (A refrain at that time was, Sachin, make runs, so that the Sensex rises too!) The following diagram shows the growth of earning per share from 1998 to 2010. The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) Sensex grew by 249 percent over the last 10 years, while the Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) Composite Index managed 140 percent growth. This is more remarkable given the Shanghai market has the advantage of a fixed population access; Chinese nationals can only invest in the Shanghai or Shenzhen exchanges and require special permission to acquire stocks from overseas. Indians meanwhile are free to invest where they choose, however increasing amounts of foreign capital and returning Indian investment are now flowing back to India (the Shanghai Stock Exchange pl aces limitations on foreign investment with a only 79 foreign institutions currently able to buy and sell A (locally priced) shares). The BSE traces its roots back to 1830, with its primary trading index, the Sensex, being first compiled in 1986 with a base level of 100. The BSE is now the largest exchange in South Asia and the 12th largest globally with an estimated market capitalization of US$1.03 trillion in June 2009. There are over 4,o00 listed companies on the exchange. In contrast, the SSE was only reformed in 1990 and lists some 900 companies. It is the sixth largest exchange in the world with a market capitalization of US$2.07 trillion, but is dominated by government-owned companies and is not fully open to foreign investors. Shanghais primary index, the SSE Composite IX was formed in 1991 with a base value of 100. The Indian industries were greatly effected by the recession of the year 2010. Indian Economy, however just felt the blow of the global economic recession and the real economic growth have seen a sharp fall followed by the lower exports, capital outflow and corporate restructuring. It is expected that the global economies continue to stay strong in the short-term as the effect of stimulus is still strong and the tax cuts are working. Indias Economic Outlook Projection 2007 2008 2009 2010 GDP Growth 9.40% 7.30% 7.60% 8.30% CPI 6.40% 9.30% 5.50% 4.90% Year 2009 has started on the gloomy note, however the trend reversed from the first quarter of the year, financial markets posted strong gains fueled by huge amount of capital inflows which was set-aside during the economic downturn in search of a higher yield. In order to keep the economic growth during the time of worst recession, Federal authorities in India has announced the stimulus packages to prop-up the economic growth. To finance the stimulus packages, Indian Government has raised over $100 billion over the last four quarters in a way to finance the stimulus pack age. Countrys Public debt, according to the latest data has zoomed to over 50% of the total GDP and Indias Central bank, Reserve Bank of India has started printing new currency notes Don’t waste time! 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Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Career Development Pl F B Manager Essay - 1270 Words

Meijun Chen A47200231 11/16/16 Career Development Plan 1. Occupation: FB Manager This position of Food and beverage manager presupposes the responsibility for management of food and beverage service at every venue in hotel, restaurant, resort, institutional affiliation, etc. His primary task is to oversee the food and beverage service, evaluate the possible profits and losses, hire and resign the restaurant personnel. He considers food and beverage service for special parties, wedding receptions, conferences, and official meetings. This person thinks about the ways to promote special events to attract the attention of the publicity and business. i. Why I select this occupation The reason for choosing this occupation is the desire to work in the hospitality sphere. This position presupposes the high level of responsibility and high demand. Resorts and hotels remain one of the most successful sphere even in the economically difficult times. The job of FB provides the possibility of good job and remuneration. It also attracts by the possibility to improve my professional skills and chance of working with managers to enhance products and services. This position provides marvelous opportunities for the future career development. ii. Current job postings I have managed to find two job postings that demand hiring the F B manager. The first is at Starwood Hotels Resorts Worldwide, Inc. This position requires an individual, who could provide the excellent service to hotelShow MoreRelatedImpooving Employee Performance72019 Words   |  289 PagesPerformance Management System Seven Coaching Principles Manager as Coach Coach as Facilitator Coaching Managers Through the Appraisal Process 11. Sample Forms A Final Word Selected References Index About the Author 66 79 104 118 128 142 163 179 243 245 247 000 Foreword I was going through the attic recently, sorting through some ancient ï ¬ les. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Land That Contains Substances Environmental Sciences Essay Free Essays

Metallic elements have played an of import function in the development of adult male, gold and Cu, both native metals have been worked into desirable objects since 15000BC. ‘Advanced ‘ smelting techniques were developed by 4000BC, used to pull out Cu from ores and within a farther 1,000 old ages, other metals were being extracted, including Ag, lead, Sn and Zn. The development of the blast furnace centuries subsequently led to the big scale production of Fe and steel ( sgm. We will write a custom essay sample on Land That Contains Substances Environmental Sciences Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now 2002 ) . The last 100 old ages has seen Great Britain shaped by the ‘great ‘ industrial revolution and witnessed the development of a overplus of industries, notably, the steel, coal and chemical industries. Industrial ‘visionaries ‘ , focused on the development of industry had non planned a sustainable hereafter and the effects to the environment were overridden by enlargement. It is this deficiency of planning that has led to historical industrial procedures leting waste to be disposed of by merely tipping it onto the land, chemicals and natural stuffs were frequently spilt in situ ensuing in land taint ( 2012 ) . Contaminated land Land that contains substances in or under the land that are considered to be a possible jeopardy to human wellness or the Environment is considered to be ‘Contaminated ‘ ( 2012 ) . Contamination can be categorised into assorted signifiers and can impact in different ways, depending upon legion factors including ; type, concentration and the nature of the substance ensuing in a huge array of impacts to both human wellness and the environment ( 2012 ) . A study undertaken by the British Geological Survey ( BGS ) in 2009, estimates that in England entirely, there are around 15,470 hectares of land that is classed as contaminated ( 2009 ) . Contamination is assessed on a site – site footing, in a command to ease the deployment of the most efficient and operable technique. In order to find the best technique, inside informations of the contamination ( s ) contained within the dirt foremost necessitate to be assessed along with the type of land stuffs present at the surface and in the subsurface ( 2010 ) . Following initial probes, contaminations can be determined and classified into groups depending on their belongingss ( organic or inorganic ) ( Brown 2009 ) . Table 1: Contaminant categories used to find redress technique applied. Adapted from ( 2010 ) . Organic Typical illustrations Halogenated volatile organic compounds ( VOCs ) 1-chlrobutane, methoxyflurane, pentafluoropropan-1ol Halogenated semivolatile organic compounds ( SVOCs ) Chlorophenol, Tetrachlorophenol, Chlordane Non-halongenated volatile organic compounds ( VOCs ) Benzene, Xylene, propanone, Carbon disulphide Non-halongenated semivolatile organic compounds ( SVOCs ) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAH ) , phenol Organic Corrosives Acetic acid, aminobenzine Organic nitriles Organonitriles Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) PCB ( Arochlor ) -1016 Pesticides / weedkillers 4, 4-DDT, Heptachlor Dioxins / Furans 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran Inorganic Metallic elements Lead, Mercury, Chromium, Zinc Radionuclides Radioactive isotopes of U, radon Corrosives Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid Nitriles Metallic nitriles Asbestos Blue, brown, white Misc Explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene ( TNT ) , hydrazine Table 1 is intended to supply a fundamental position of the categorization of contaminations, measuring the rightness of redress techniques is a complicated procedure in world, in world, several constituent contaminations will be contained within the mark site, each class of contamination would be assessed separately to measure the pertinence of a redress technique ( 2012 ) . Redress of contaminated land Environmental hazards associated with contaminated land are typically remediated – a technique that seeks to take contaminations contained within the dirt ( 2012 ) . Redress techniques are typically capable to an array of regulative demands – Part 2A of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 that is based on the likeliness of important injury to human wellness and important pollution of the H2O environment ( 2012 ) . Appropriate redress The appropriate redress solution should be implemented to ensue in the land being ‘suitable for usage ‘ . Remediation should render the land no longer contaminated and the effects of any important injury, or pollution of controlled Waterss that has occurred has been remedied, the suitably selected redress technique can in many state of affairss see the degree of taint reduced to such a degree that any considered important hazard is minimum, this does non nevertheless connote that all contaminations are removed wholly, in some state of affairss the contaminations are at such low degrees that they pose no hazard or that they are for good contained unmoved ( 2004 ) . Remediation engineerings available Historically, the redress of contaminated land can be expensive and relies to a great extent upon procedures that are basically really proficient ( 2010 ) . Many of these procedures have involved heavy technology solutions, although considered to be really effectual, and in many instances, the merely feasible option, they have high environmental, societal and economic impacts ( 2012 ) . Categorization of dirt redress engineerings Soil redress engineerings can be categorised into four distinguishable wide categories ( Table 1 ) harmonizing to the cardinal rules involved in the remotion / containment of contamination ( s ) which can be farther sub-divided into unmoved and ex-situ techniques ( 2012 ) . In situ clean-ups require no digging of contaminated stuff, in situ techniques are frequently preferable because of their lower application cost ; nevertheless, the general consensus is that these techniques take longer to make the preferable position and are more hard to supervise because of non-uniformity in intervention because of discrepancies in dirt stuffs ( DETR 1998 ) . Ex situ attacks ( digging of a contaminated country ) and handling it on site ( antique situ, on-site ) or transporting it to a distant site for ‘cleaning ‘ ( ex situ, off-site ) is by and large considered to be the more expensive option given the logistics of the operation, nevertheless, ex-situ techniques present the advantage of taking the bulk of taint forestalling farther spread ( 2012 ) . Table 1: Overview of both in situ and ex situ redress engineerings available, adapted from: ( 2010 ) . In-situ Technology Biological Physical Chemical Thermal Chemical oxidization and decrease i Electro – redress i i Enhanced bioremediation utilizing redox amendments i Blushing i i i Phytoremediation i Air Sparging i Biosparging i Stabilization and hardening i i Thermal Treatment i Venting i i Vitrification i i i Ex situ Biopiles i Slurry stage bioreactors i Chemical oxidization and decrease i Soil lavation and separation procedures i i Stabilization and hardening i i Thermal desorption i Incineration i Ex situ dirt vapour extraction i i Vitrification i i i Water and gas / vapour intervention i i i Biological redress engineerings Bioremediation uses micro-organisms ( barm, fungi or bacteriums ) to degrade organic contaminations ; bioremediation can be carried out both unmoved and ex-situ. The contaminations act as a nutrient beginning for the micro-organisms that break them down. Aerobic processes require a beginning of O, chase awaying C dioxide COa‚‚ and H2O H2O ( 2012 ) ( Figure 1 ) Figure 1: Conventional diagram of aerophilic biodegradation in dirt ( 2008 ) . Ex situ techniques include slurry-phase bioremediation, a procedure of keeping contact between micro-organisms and contaminations by adding H2O to contaminated dirts to organize ‘slurry ‘ ( 2012 ) . Other bioremediation techniques include ; Bioventing Injection of H peroxide ( H202 ) Solid stage bioremediation Landfarming Dirt biopiles Composting ( 2012 ) . Bioremediation is an economical procedure for a wide scope of applications of organic wastes. Many of the procedures can be handled in situ avoiding the demand to transport risky stuffs from site ( 2005 ) . Physico – Chemical interventions Physical methods of dirt renewal are those that do non alter the physic-chemical belongingss of the pollutants accumulated in the dirt to be cleaned ( 2007 ) . Physical redress techniques include simplified procedures such as dirt extraction and storage of contaminated dirts along with more complicated and technological techniques ( 2010 ) . In the physical procedures, the stage transportation of pollutants is induced. In the chemical processes, the chemical construction of the pollutants is changed by agencies of chemical reactions to bring forth less toxic or better dissociable compounds from the solid matrix ( 2012 ) . Physical redress techniques offer a cost effectual solution that can be concluded comparatively rapidly, and devour really small technology or energy resources ( 2012 ) . Physical applications can be engaged both unmoved and ex-situ, and have the advantage that a wide spectrum of pollutants can be removed from the contaminated site and that they can be widely administered ( little, local sites ) ( 2012 ) . Physical-chemical interventions include ; Dirt Blushing Dirt lavation ( Figure 2 ) . Fracturing hypertext transfer protocol: // Figure 2: Dirt rinsing technique ( 2010 ) Thermal interventions It is by and large considered that thermic procedures are the most dearly-won, nevertheless, a speedy redress clip is offered as compensation ( 2012 ) . Thermal redress involves the debut of hydrocarbon contaminated dirts into a het vas and retaining those dirts until they reach a unvarying temperature. Contaminants are heated by the thermic procedure, heat is applied to increase the volatility, to fire, break up, destruct or run the contamination. The hazard of let go ofing dioxins into the ambiance is an of import consideration and hence, runing temperatures are limited to 800A °F ( 2006 ) . Factors that influence the timescale of effectivity are the type and sums of contaminations present that scope from site to site, the physical size of the site and dirt stuff nowadays ( clu-in-org 2012 ) . Thermal techniques can be applied both unmoved and ex-situ, the rule advantage of unmoved techniques is that dirt can be treated without the demand to take and transport cut downing operating costs, nevertheless, unmoved techniques by and large take longer to de-contaminate a site and cost nest eggs are negligible. Ex-situ techniques involve the digging and remotion of contaminated dirts where they are exposed to high temperatures in intervention cells ; the cells contain contaminated media during the application. Although ex-situ techniques offer a decreased intervention clip, increased logistical deductions offset intervention costs ( clu-in-org 2012 ) . Thermal techniques typically include ; Hot gas taint Vitrification Injection of hot air Thermal Conduction Additional techniques are shown in tabular array? hypertext transfer protocol: // % 20thermische % 20reiniging.PNG Figure 3: Diagram of thermic cleaning ( 2012 ) . 2.0 A critical appraisal of the effectivity of dirt redress techniques and the protection of groundwater 2.1 The Groundwater system â€Å" The largest available reservoir of fresh H2O † ( 2012 ) Water that is continually traveling through the environment is known as the H2O rhythm, nevertheless, most of the rain that falls will be soaked up by dirt, through the procedure of infiltration, H2O will soak farther down into the land and finally into underlying stones, this is known as groundwater ( 2012 ) . 2.2 The importance of groundwater 70 % of the planetary capacity of fresh water is groundwater, 30 % of this sum is found within rivers, lakes and watercourses, many of these rivers and lakes etc. are fed straight by groundwater, it can non be underestimated how much groundwater plays an of import function within the human civilization, groundwater is the line of life afforded to planetary wetland sites and a major helper to industry in a planetary context ( 1999 ) . Whilst groundwater is by and large of good biological quality, it is invariably threated by contaminations, pollutants that seep through the surface and into the groundwater system, pollution occurs from diffuse beginnings when a pollutant is spread onto the land in the signifier of an applied agricultural pesticide for illustration and besides from point beginning pollution, where a chemical spillage has occurred for illustration. Some pollutants inputs will of course degrade or will be filtered out as the H2O flows through permeable stones, but on many occasions, the pollutants are relentless types and have to be subjected to typically dearly-won redress procedures ( 2012 ) . Figure 4: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ( 2007 ) . 3.0 Are dirt redress engineerings effectual at protecting groundwater? The mobility and destiny of contaminations that enter dirt are determined by a figure of factors ( postpone? ) , in order for a comprehensive and realistic site hazard appraisal to be carried out, consideration should be given to the nature and prevalent conditions in the dirts, including ; geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, contaminant geochemistry, geotechnics, ecotoxicology and microbiology, one time these have been decently addressed, a predicted behavior theoretical account of the contamination can be produced to help in the choice of the most efficient and cost effectual redress technique ( 2012 ) . Relevant dirt and groundwater belongingss may include: Relevant contaminant Physico-chemical belongingss may include: Soil profile Contaminant concentration Dirt texture ( comparative proportions of sand, loam and clay ) Chemical speciation e.g. the valency or oxidization province of a metal Presence of mineral components such as clays, carbonates, phosphates, oxides and organic affair ( expressed as the fraction of organic C foc ) Solubility in H2O ( or other dissolver if a non-aqueous free stage liquid is present ) Moisture content Sorption ( soil-water divider coefficient Kd and organic carbon-water divider coefficient Koc ) Particle size distribution Octanol-water divider coefficient ( kow ) Bulk dry denseness Vapour force per unit area Porosity ( air-filled and water-filled ) Henry ‘s Law invariable Sorption capacity of the dirt Biodegradation pH and redox possible Nature of metabolites Microbial populations Vegetable consumption ( dirt to works concentration ) Elevation of H2O tabular array Weathering possible Groundwater flow way Diffusion coefficient in air Hydraulic gradient Diffusion coefficient in H2O Hydraulic conduction Viscosity ( gases and bluess ) Hydraulic dispersivity Viscosity ( non-aqueous stage liquids ) Table? : Factors act uponing the destiny and mobility rate of contaminations in dirt, adapted from ( 2012 ) . How to cite Land That Contains Substances Environmental Sciences Essay, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Amazon and eBay free essay sample

What are the business benefits to Amazon and eBay of opening up some of their database to developers and entrepreneurs? Do you agree with this strategy? Why or why not? Amazon and eBay have opened the database doors to thousands of developers and entrepreneurs since 2002. They realized very quickly the benefits of this, which was once thought of as risky experiment. A database is a collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select the desired pieces of data. It is therefore seen as an electronic filing system. Databases are categorized into Hierarchical, Relational, Object-oriented and Multi-dimensional Networks. Traditional databases are organized by fields, records, and files. A field is a single piece of information, a record is one complete set of fields and a file is a collection of records. For instance, a telephone book. It contains a list of records, each of which consists of three fields: name, address, and telephone number. Both Amazon and EBay has benefited by opening the doors for entrepreneurs and developers to tap into their data warehouses by: When the company opened its data vaults in 2002, with the support of the very first project Amazon Web Services, entrepreneurs, developers and businesses have tapped into the data. With this data, they began building money making Web sites, new online shopping interfaces, and innovative services for thousands Amazon’s independent sellers. eBay joined in with Amazon shortly thereafter. In doing so, they can interact, build and expand existing business partnerships with other companies. Opening and sharing databases has unlocked the possibility of what is believed to be the Web’s great new beyond. This is an era in which online businesses now operate as an open-ended software. This means platforms can now accommodate thousands of other business selling symbiotic products and services. The rise in open databases and Web services goes even further such that holding out the promise of automating the links between online businesses by applications that depend on companies sharing their vital data. Amazon, eBay and Google have taken advantage of this business and have taken it to new heights. Opening up databases to developers reaped enormous profits. Jeff Bezos the CEO of Amazon, felt that the company could benefit from making its databases available and it would expand the company’s online footprint and drive more sales. Meg Whitman, the chief executive at eBay called out to the eBay’s developer community, opening the company’s $3 billion database of 33 million weekly auction items to the Technorati. Some 15,000 developers and others have since registered to use that prized database and access other software features. Amazon was first to move forward with the idea of opening its databases in 2002. Databases as described in the text, â€Å"are an integrated collection of logically related data elements. A database consolidates many records previously stored in separate files so that a common pool of data serves many applications.† As mentioned on the second page of the Case Study, of the 65,000 entrepreneurs and developers that have decided to take advantage of Amazon’s open door approach about one-third have been tinkering with the software tools that help the 800,000 sellers of Amazon. Amazon has in turn benefited from the added efficiency to its site. Amazon and eBay became more popular and productive by opening up some of their database to developers and entrepreneurs. Amazon opened their data vaults in 2002 in which they made data available to 65,000 developers businesses and other entrepreneurs. In doing so they were able to make a transition from â€Å"Earth’s Biggest Bookstore† to â€Å"Big piece of software available over web†. This have indeed generated software tools which assist 800,000 Amazon sellers. These include Scout Pal (service turns mobile phones into barcode scanners) and Seller Engine Scout Pal (helps merchants on main site to upload their inventory, check prices and automation of adding new listings). As a result of this action, the companys sales volume have augmented hence enhanced profit margins. Both companies have also generated employment for the upcoming generation as well as becoming more accessible to the market. Firstly by furnishing a positive output to the organizations mass production and easy functioning of activities with their employees and customers. In doing so, they have made it more efficient and effective whereby customers can now give valid feedback on ways which they could improve the database in satisfying the customers needs which would result in customer satisfaction. It is much easier for customers and employees to search and make choices from the seller options. So I think for the organizations as such, this kind of strategy does works but it may not be applicable to all kinds of organizations where security issues are very important, because it may not be secure to do this. expanding the companys online footprint thus creating and building money making websites. Business Benefits – Amazon EbayExperimental RD for free – no expense for company.Expansion of company’s online footprint. Felicitates building moneymaking websites.New online shopping interface.Innovative services for 1000s of Amazon, Ebay and independent sellers.Increased Sales for the company.Development of software tools that help the company’s customers.Automation of links between online business and applications.Enhanced Market space for Sellers and buyers.

Saturday, March 28, 2020

10 Classification Essay Topics on Agricultural Economics

10 Classification Essay Topics on Agricultural Economics Agricultural economics, or agronomics, is a field of study that deals with the application of economic and statistical theories to optimize the entire production cycle of agriculture. It focuses on land output, crop yields, labor force, financing, government interventions, and other relevant factors. If you have taken up this subject, chances are that your instructor will ask you to go beyond what they taught you and task you with writing a classification essay. If you feel overwhelmed by the scope of this discipline (or have delayed working on your assignment till the last minute), you may have trouble choosing agricultural economic topics to write about. We have you covered with our 20 agricultural economics topics to write about for a classification essay. However, if you want to work a little harder on your essay topics, the following 10 facts on agricultural economics will inspire you. A farmer’s management capacity is an important indicator of results and returns. The management capacity of a farmer is a vital factor when it comes to effective farm results and financial returns. The different aspects of management are categorized into two inter-related groups: personal aspects and decision-making abilities. The personal aspects include characteristics such as the famers’ biographical facts (education, age, socio-economic status, etc.), capabilities and abilities, and motivation and drives. On the other hand, the decision-making aspects include the practices used by the farmer in order to plan and control the decisions needed on the farm. There are three strategies used in precision agriculture. The main goal of Precision agriculture is to improve farm and field management. There are three basic methods which can be used to accomplish this: Make farm practices more efficient by applying economic principles. Reduce the footprint of farming to protect the environment. Match farm practices with the right crop needs. Farmers hesitate to adopt new agricultural technologies. The perceptions of agricultural innovations affect adoption rate. Traditional studies focus on the broader demographic and socio-economic factors; the subjective perceptions of the farmers are not taken into account. This aspect must be studied. An accurate cost and benefit analysis of new agricultural technologies can only be performed if the farmer’s perceptions (positive or negative) are also included into the estimates. Sustainability in agricultural research should be taken into consideration. When evaluating the merits of modern agricultural research, the sustainability factor needs to be a major criterion. Sustainable agricultural practices ensure that no harm comes to the environment, communities, public health, and animals. Researchers need to: Learn the importance of sustainable agriculture. Develop accurate ways to measure sustainability. Study sustainability of major farming systems currently in use. Identify and measure external factors affecting sustainability. There is an inverse relationship between economic growth and agriculture. As the economy grows rapidly, agriculture takes on a converse trajectory and slows down. This phenomenon is observed in almost all economies, open and closed, but it is more prominent in closed economies. As the demand for food rises, farm productivity levels rise. However, the non-farming sectors do not experience such rapid growth, which is why the market is saturated and agriculture has slowed down. In the case of open economies, things are more complicated because the demand of non-tradable goods is income-elastic. Resources are diverted towards the production of these goods, resulting in the slowing down of agriculture. Economic variables interfere with the adoption of irrigation technologies. The diffusion of irrigation technologies is a function of economic variables such as the crop yield price, water price, and irrigation subsidies. If governments want to control diffusion, their strategies should include altering water prices and offering subsidies on irrigation equipment. Increasing the prices of staple foods affects more than just the population. A rise in prices of staple foods affects the poor sections of the population more severely. Low-income households usually face an increase in overall poverty if prices rise. The short run effects vary according to two dimensions: the commodity type and the country. The common factor observed among all cases of significant prices rise is that poverty reduction events are far less common than poverty increases. Genetically engineered crops can reduce dependency on pesticides. The use of genetically engineered (GE) crops can lead to a reduction in pesticide usage. Studies have proven that GE crops need a lower quantity of pesticides and less frequent sprayings. Therefore, the overall expenditure incurred drops by a significant amount. This reduction, in turn, leads to more efficient production, affects the environment positively, and also helps realize more labor savings. Risk factor analysis is a must for effective farm modeling. Measuring uncertainty and analyzing risk is an important part of agricultural economics. Statistical frameworks have been utilized to study risk, resulting in many risk-aversion and risk-neutralizing methods. The education factor in adoption of modern agricultural techniques. Adoption of new farming methods and techniques is greatly influenced by education. Traditionally, the head of the household was considered as the sole decision maker when it comes to altering farming methods. However, new studies show that there is an intra-household effect of education that is statistically significant enough to be taken into account when creating policies. The socioeconomic environment also plays a significant role in influencing adoption. The biggest influence of education is seen when education expansion occurs in traditional areas as compared to modern ones. This list contains facts that are related to modern issues in farming and agriculture; they would be perfect as a research topic. All these facts are sufficiently detailed and will serve as a source of inspiration for your essay. Refer to the source materials below if you want more information about a particular fact. Also drop by our guide on writing a classification essay on agricultural economics. References: Foster, Phillips, and Howard D. Leathers, The World Food Problem (Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Reinner Publishers, 1999) Zeller, Manfred, and Richard L. Meyer. The Critical Triangle of Microfinance: from Vision to Reality. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. Adesina, A. (1995). Farmers perceptions and adoption of new agricultural technology: evidence from analysis in Burkina Faso and Guinea, West Africa. Agricultural Economics, 13(1), 1-9. Lynam, J. (1989). Sense and sustainability: Sustainability as an objective in international agricultural research. Agricultural Economics, 3(4), 381-398. Rougoor, C. (1998). How to define and study farmers management capacity: theory and use in agricultural economics. Agricultural Economics, 18(3), 261-272. Berry, Albert, and William Cline. Agrarian Structure and Productivity in Developing Countries. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979. Dimitri, Carolyn, Anne Effland, and Neilson Conklin. The 20th Century Transformation of U.S. Agriculture and Farm Policy. Washington, D.C.: Economic Research Service, USDA, 2005. Evenson, R.E., P.Pingali, and T.P. Schultz, eds. Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Volume 3: Agricultural Development: Farmers, Farm Production, and Food Markets, ed. Amsterdam:Elsevier, 2006. Pardey, Philip G., Nienke Beitema, Steven Dehmer, and Stanley Wood. Agricultural Research: A Growing Divide, Washington, D.C.: IFPRI, 2006. Pearce, David W., and R. Kerry Turner. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press 1990. Sachs, Jeffrey D. Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet. New York: Penguin Books, 2008

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Informative Speech Coconut Oil Essays

Informative Speech Coconut Oil Essays Informative Speech Coconut Oil Essay Informative Speech Coconut Oil Essay Essay Topic: Informative Intro Coconut oil had a bad reputation for a long time because of its high saturated fat content. Health experts have hammered into us that saturated fat is bad for your hear t health. According to the website, Gunners 201 3, Coconut oil contains a unique combo nation of fatty acids with powerful properties. The type of fat in coconut oil is called medium chain triglycerides, Which is a saturated fat that goes straight from your liver to you r digestive tract There it is used as a quick energy source and can even create ketene bodies which have a therapeutic effect on brain disorders such as epilepsy and alchemists accords Eng to Gunners 013. As far as health benefits goes,this seems pretty great right? Eat a little bi t of coconut oil,get a little bit of energy and fight off epilepsy and alchemies at the same it me. Well since it still has a high level of saturated its still not considered the best oil for your heart health. Another health benefit is a possibility of preventing infections. 2 char strictest of coconut oil make this possible. One, twelve carbon Laurie acids makes up alma cost 50% of fatty acids and Two, when it is digested it forms a monocotyledon called monolayer n. Both monocotyledon and immolation can kill harmful pathogens like bacteria,viruses tan fungi. This can be done of you take just coconut oil or if you just use it as a topical solution n as well. The last health benefit is weight loss! This benefit implements the Masts as well as the key tones from the benefits previously mentioned. According to Gunner 2013, 1 study f mound that 1530 grams of Masts per day increased 24 hour expenditure by 5%. Totaling about 120 calories per day. Stones have been shown to reduce your appetite. So increasing you r energy expenditure and decreasing your appetite equals weight loss. All thanks to co coconut Oil. So there you have it, quick energy source,brain disorder fighting stones,infection prevention,and weight loss. These are only a few of the many benefits of coconut oil. Now let s look at some of the ways we can use coconut oil. There are many resources online to find ways to use coconut oil. I have found one that has every use from all of the resources corn binned and then some. Wellnesss. Mom has a list of 101 uses for coconut oil and this where e first heard of the many uses from cooking,to personal hygiene, to baby care. Also on this w Bessie,including an addition to the 101 uses,there are comments from other users saying ha t they use their coconut oil for. So it is literally never ending. People are continually comments Eng on this page of what they use it for. Say I use my coconut oil for one thing while another us ere can say that they do the same thing but in a different way. So really its just endless in the different ways you can use coconut oil. Im going to discuss 3 of the many uses that I use my coconut oil for. First, I use to cook. I use it in everything from frying,to baking, you can even u SE it in pasta. You can use it in anything that you would use oil in your chokingly is ever hitting, you can use coconut oil. Its just going to have to go with your taste. Ive used it on my baby cousin before, she gets diaper rashes. All the chemicals in diapers and wipes can be very harsh on sensitive bottoms. Coconut oil is a great substitute for diaper cream because of the initiating properties. Also its obviously moisturizing. Finally I use it as an eye makeup re mover. It works like any other lotion but having the added benefits of the coconut oil makes it my #1 go to for any lotion applied to my skin. Again there are many more ways to use coconut oil.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Strategic Knowledge Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words - 1

Strategic Knowledge - Essay Example al., n.d.). With the intention to determine that whether the idea of intellectual capital can be managed at the strategic level or not, it can be affirmed that intellectual capital aids an organisation to generate greater value to the customers and drive success at in the long-run. Contextually, it has been viewed that the success of several foremost organisations including Microsoft, Amazon and Google among others have been typically based upon their respective intellectual capital in terms of managing it in an effective manner (Marr, 2008). Samsung Group, popularly known as Samsung, is one of the biggest Information Technology (IT) based global organisation that deals with various products and services including consumer electronics, medical instruments, mobile phones and telecommunication related equipments (Samsung, 2012). Notably, the vision of the company is to incessantly develop its pioneering technological advancements as well as effectual business procedures with the intention of penetrating into new business markets, enhancing profitability and most significantly accomplishing superior competitive position over its chief business market competitors (Samsung, 2012). Thus, it can be stated that the group can attain its expected business goals within the context of KM by effectively managing its intellectual capital. Based on these considerations, the discussion henceforth will intend to present a comprehensive analysis of the statement concerning the issue that whether the perception of intellectual capital can be managed at the strategic level. Different important aspects that include knowledge management or environment related managerial concerns, intellectual along with social capital, communities of practice and soft systems thinking will also be portrayed in this discussion. The conception of Knowledge Management (KM) is